The Shouf Biosphere Reserve is one of the last remaining areas in Lebanon where large mammals that once roamed the region can still be found: wolves, wild boars and striped hyaena. In the future it may be possible to reintroduce the ibex and mountain gazelle. In total, the Reserve is home to 32 species of mammals. Wolf, wild boar, wild cat and jungle cat have all increased in number since the Reserve was established, as have the numbers of jackal, red fox, porcupine, and squirrel. Striped hyenas are found on the borders of the Reserve and feed on the garbage dumps and dead animals and carcasses
Procavia capenis syriaca
Daman Des Roches
Weight: 2-6 kg
Length: 50-60 cm
Observation: Active during the day
Habitats: Rocky open areas in the Reserve, mainly at Niha fortress
General information:The Rock Hyrax belongs to the same order as elephants. However, these small mammals have many unique structural peculiarities: a robust build, dusky colored fur, short limbs with specialized elastic pads on the soles of the feet for good traction when climbing or jumping. They use vocalization for communication; bask in the sun in winter to warm up. Hyraxes are colonial herbivorous.
Canis aureus syriacus
Weight: 5-12 kg.
Length: 60-90 cm (tail 20 to 30 cm)
Observation: Sunset to dawn
Habitat: Forests, bushy areas and in close proximity to villages.
General information: The female delivers at the end of spring between 4-6 cubs. It can travel between 5-20 Km a day. The female is smaller than the male. The young stay for 6 months with their mother. It feeds on fruits, birds, insects and rodents
Greater Mouse-eared bat
Weight: 28-40 grs
Length: 67-84mm, tail 45-60mm, wing span 35-43cm
Habitat: woodland, over short grass meadows, pasture, and agricultural land up to 1700m
General information: hibernate in caves. Feeding mainly on insects, beetles and large moth.
Chat des marais
El Hir El Nimr
Weight: 2.5-4.5 kg (6-12 kg) adult.
Length: 45-65 cm (50- 90 cm) adult
Observation: At night
Habitat: Wet areas, near water catches, forests and bushy areas.
General information: Strong, brave, active and agile animal but endangered. The female delivers at the end of April. The young stay with their mother for about 4-5 months. It feeds on frogs, snakes, birds and mamals
Erinaceus europaeus concolor
Kababat El shawk or AlQounfoz
Weight: 1 – 1,5 kg.
Length: 0.20-0.30 m
Observation: Night / day (rarely)
Habitat: Orchards, near houses.
General information: Hibernate in winter. It rolls into a ball with spines for defense. Feeds on insects, invertebrates and snakes.
Hyaena hyaena syriaca
Weight: 20-50 kg
Length: 85-130 (without length of tail)
Observation: At night
Habitat: Cave in dense forests
General information: Its hind legs are weaker than the front ones. It has long pointed ears and a grey coat with black stipes. It feed on carrion, fruits, vegetables and reptiles.
Hystrix indica indica
Weight: 10-17 kg.
Length: 70-90 cm
Habitat: Cultivated or bushy areas, in self-dug burrows or natural caves.
General information: It is distinguished by its black and white quills for defending itself. Herbivorous, feeding on plants, bulbs and bark.
Meles meles canescens
Weight: 7-14 kg.
Length: 55-85 cm (tail 10 cm)
Observation: At night
Habitat: Woodlands and sometimes at high altitude
General information: It is characterized by 2 black stripes running over the eyes as far as the ears. It spends the winter in a well organized underground den divided into different compartments just going out to feed. Feeds on invertebrates, reptiles, rodents, and sometimes plants.
Sciurus anomalus syriacus
Weight: 0.2-.0.4 kg
Length: 20-40 cm (tail 10-20 cm)
Observation: early morning and late afternoon
Habitat: Oak and cedar Forests.
General information: The female delivers from April to Marsh. The nest exists inside grooves of trees. Feeds on fruits, nuts, seeds, and birds’ eggs.
Sus scrofa lybicus
Wild boar Sanglier
Weight: 70-250 kg.
Length: 80-130 cm.
Observation: At night when they go out to feed Habitat: Forests, swamps and around agricultural areas
General information: Strong animal, characterized by a strong sense of smell and hearing, but weak eyesight. The male has canine that grow throughout his life. Boars are common due to their predator abscence. They feed on oak, bulbs, worms, snails, snakes and rats
Vulpus vulpus palaestina
Common red fox
Weight: 3-6 kg.
Length: 50-65 cm (tail bushy 45-50cm)
Observation: Active during the day but more at night.
Habitats: All habitats including forests, bushy areas, open areas and valleys and urban areas.
General information: The female delivers 2-5 cubs during May. The fox is recognized from a characteristic white spot at the tip of its long tail. The young stay for one year with their mother. It feeds on rodents, hares, birds, fruits and berries
Canis lupus pallipes
Zeeb or Deeb
Length: 80-115 cm bushy tail 30-40cm
Observation: Mainly nocturnal, but occasionally hunts during the day
General information: Globally threatened species, highly endangered in Lebanon. Opportunistic carnivore, feeding on wild boar (piglets), hares, livestock, and occasionally on birds. They travel between 40-70km/night searching for food.