Cultural Heritage


The Historic Significance of the Cedars of Lebanon



The Cedars of Lebanon have an almost magical place in history, not just in the history of Lebanon, but of a number of neighboring countries and conquering empires.
The cedar forests of Lebanon enjoy the unique distinction as the oldest documented forests in history. The cedars were important enough in the history of man to be traceable to the very earliest written records, that of the Sumerians in the third millennium BC. In the ancient Sumerian story, "The Epic of Gilgamesh", one of the oldest pieces of literature in the world, the Cedars feature prominently. Gilgamesh has since been recognized as King Gilgamesh of history and in probability visited Mount Lebanon.
It was the Phoenicians along the coast of present-day Lebanon and from such ancient cities as Byblos, Tyre and Sidon who became the principal dealers in the timber of the cedar. Indeed, the cedars made a special contribution to the development of the Phoenician civilization by providing the timbers with which they developed their famous sea-going merchant boats thus becoming one of the first, if not the first major sea-going trading nation in the world.
The Phoenicians traded the cedar to Egypt, until Egypt in turn conquered the land of the cedars and gained direct access to the forests, which were highly prized in the building of temples and boats. Later the Babylonians took a similar interest in the cedars and obtained them for use in building the fabled city of Babylon.
People around the world know of the cedars of Lebanon because of the numerous references in the Hebrew texts of the Old Testament. The Bible records in some detail how King Solomon, King of Israel, requested of King Hiram of Tyre to supply cedar and to build a temple and a palace in Jerusalem.
In the 6th Century BC, Persian control of the Phoenician ports provided the Persians with the means of assembling a navy for use against their enemies the Greeks who were already embarrassing the Persians with their mobility in the Mediterranean as they leased and copied the Phoenician triremes.
The expansion of the Roman Empire into Syria and Lebanon had its detrimental effect on the cedars until the Emperor Hadrian installed the markers around the boundary of the remaining forests and declared them as Imperial Domain. Specimens of these markers have been preserved and held in museum collections.
The Ottoman Turks deforested all of the cedar growing areas within easy transport distance of their Hijaz railway to provide fuel for their wood-burning engines. Only the highest and most remote groves escaped damage.
In the modern day Lebanon the legendary cedar is still revered and remains prominent in the minds of all Lebanese. The cedar features on the national flag, the national airline, Government logos, the Lebanese currency and innumerable commercial logos. It is the feature of books, poetry, post cards, posters and art. The Cedars of Lebanon are truly an important part of the cultural heritage of the people of Lebanon.


Historic Cultural Sites



The setting of the Shouf is a nexus of many cultures, religions, and historical events, all of which have left an imprint which makes the area's cultural heritage as rich as its ecosystems. The following are some major landmarks:
- Niha Fortress
The cave castle of Tyron Niha relates to one of the closing episodes of Prince Fakhreddin II's epic history and are the only remaining vestiges of a once powerful fortress which was successively used by the Arabs, Crusaders, and a number of princes of Mount Lebanon.
- El Nabi Ayoub
A feretory was built on the hill above the village of Niha to honor Job's memory and hold his relics. Ayoub is the Arabic name of the prophet Job.
- Qab Elias Castle
This once powerful Druze fortress served as a guardian outpost controlling the road that linked Beirut to Damascus, and a marching post for the Druze and Chehab rulers of the South Bekaa or Wadi Taym.
- Mazar El Sit Cha'wane
El Sit Cha'wane is a famous figure in the Druze religion. Like Job in the Old Testament, she was held up as a model of virtue and devotion. A feretory was erected in her name.

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